Unix Editor Reference

This document is a hypertext version of 'vi-summary.doc'. It summarizes commands for the editors ex and vi.

See also vi reference and vi guide.


Ex Quick Reference

Entering/leaving Ex

 % ex name         edit name, start at end

 % ex +n name      ... at line n

 % ex -t tag       start at tag

 % ex -r           list saved files

 % ex -r name      recover file name

 % ex name ...     edit first; rest via :n

 % ex -R name      read only mode

 : x               exit, saving changes

 : q!              exit, discarding changes

Ex states

Ex commands

abbrev   ab   next         n     unabbrev     una

append   a    number       nu    undo         u

args     ar   open         o     unmap        unm

change   c    preserve     pre   version      ve

copy     co   print        p     visual       vi

delete   d    put          pu    write        w

edit     e    quit         q     xit          x

file     f    read         re    yank         ya

global   g    recover      rec   window       z

insert   i    rewind       rew   escape       !

join     j    set          se    lshift       

list     l    shell        sh    print next   CR

map           source       so    resubst      &

mark     ma   stop         st    rshift       >

move     m    substitute   s     scroll       ^D

Ex command addresses

n     line n      /pat   next with pat

.     current     ?pat   previous with pat

$     last        x-n    n before x

+     next        x,y    x through y

-     previous    'x     marked with x

+n    n forward   ''     previous context

%     1,$

Specifying terminal type

 % setenv TERM type           csh and all version 6

 $ TERM=type; export TERM     sh in Version 7

See also tset(1)

Some terminal types

2621   43     adm31    dw1     h19

2645   733    adm3a    dw2     i100

300s   745    c100     gt40    mime

33     act4   dm1520   gt42    owl

37     act5   dm2500   h1500   t1061

4014   adm3   dm3025   h1510   vt52

Initializing options

EXINIT       place set's here in environment var.

set x        enable option

set nox      disable option

set x=val    give value val

set          show changed options

set all      show all options

set x?       show value of option x

Useful options

autoindent   ai     supply indent

autowrite    aw     write before changing files

ignorecase   ic     in scanning

lisp                ( ) { } are s-exp's

list                print ^I for tab, $ at end

magic               . [ * special in patterns

number       nu     number lines

paragraphs   para   macro names which start ...

redraw              simulate smart terminal

scroll              command mode lines

sections     sect   macro names ...

shiftwidth   sw     for  >, and input ^D

showmatch    sm     to ) and } as typed

slowopen     slow   choke updates during insert

window              visual mode lines

wrapscan     ws     around end of buffer?

wrapmargin   wm     automatic line splitting

Scanning pattern formation

 ^           beginning of line

 $           end of line

 .           any character

 \          beginning of word

 \>          end of word

 [str]       any char in str

 [^str]      ... not in str

 [x-y]       ... between x and y

 *           any number of preceding

Vi Quick Reference

Entering/leaving Vi

 % vi name           edit name at top

 % vi +n name        ... at line n

 % vi + name         ... at end

 % vi -r             list saved files

 % vi -r name        recover file name

 % vi name ...       edit first; rest via :n

 % vi -t tag         start at tag

 % vi +/pat name     search for pat

 % view name         read only mode

 ZZ                  exit from vi, saving changes

 ^Z                  stop vi for later resumption

The display

Last line - Error messages, echoing input to :, /, ?, and !, feedback about i/o and large changes.

Vi states

Counts before Vi commands

Simple commands

dw                delete a word

de                ... leaving punctuation

dd                delete a line

3dd               ... 3 lines

itextESC          insert text abc

cwnewESC          change word to new

easESC            pluralize word

xp                transpose characters

Interrupting, cancelling

 ESC       end insert or incomplete cmd

 ^?        (delete or rubout) interrupts

 ^L        reprint screen if ^? scrambles it

File manipulation

 :w            write back changes

 :wq           write and quit

 :q            quit

 :q!           quit, discard changes

 :e name       edit file name

 :e!           reedit, discard changes

 :e + name     edit, starting at end

 :e +n         edit starting at line n

 :e #          edit alternate file

 ^^            synonym for :e #

 :w name       write file name

 :w! name      overwrite file name

 :sh           run shell, then return

 :!cmd         run cmd, then return

 :n            edit next file in arglist

 :n args       specify new arglist

 :f            show current file and line

 ^G            synonym for :f

 :ta tag       to tag file entry tag

 ^]            :ta, following word is tag

Positioning within file

 ^F          forward screenfull

 ^B          backward screenfull

 ^D          scroll down half screen

 ^U          scroll up half screen

 G           goto line (end default)

 /pat        next line matching pat

 ?pat        prev line matching pat

 n           repeat last / or ?

 N           reverse last / or ?

 /pat/+n     n'th line after pat

 ?pat?-n     n'th line before pat

 ]]          next section/function

 [[          previous section/function

 %           find matching ( ) { or }

Adjusting the screen

 ^L          clear and redraw

 ^R          retype, eliminate @ lines

 zCR         redraw, current at window top

 z-          ... at bottom

 z.          ... at center

 /pat/z-     pat line at bottom

 zn.         use n line window

 ^E          scroll window down 1 line

 ^Y          scroll window up 1 line

Marking and returning

 ``      previous context

 ''      ... at first non-white in line

 mx      mark position with letter x

 `x      to mark x

 'x      ... at first non-white in line

Line positioning

 H          home window line

 L          last window line

 M          middle window line

 +          next line, at first non-white

 -          previous line, at first non-white

 CR         return, same as +

  or j      next line, same column

 ^ or k     previous line, same column

Character positioning

 ^           first non white

 0           beginning of line

 $           end of line

 h or ->     forward

 l or -     backwards

 ^H          same as -

 space       same as ->

 fx          find x forward

 Fx          f backward

 tx          upto x forward

 Tx          back upto x

 ;           repeat last f F t or T

 ,           inverse of ;

 |           to specified column

 %           find matching ( { ) or }

Words, sentences, paragraphs

 w       word forward

 b       back word

 e       end of word

 )       to next sentence

 }       to next paragraph

 (       back sentence

 {       back paragraph

 W       blank delimited word

 B       back W

 E       to end of W

Commands for LISP

 )       Forward s-expression

 }       ... but don't stop at atoms

 (       Back s-expression

 {       ... but don't stop at atoms

Corrections during insert

 ^H        erase last character

 ^W        erases last word

 erase     your erase, same as ^H

 kill      your kill, erase input this line

 \         escapes ^H, your erase and kill

 ESC       ends insertion, back to command

 ^?        interrupt, terminates insert

 ^D        backtab over autoindent

 ^^D       kill autoindent, save for next

 0^D       ... but at margin next also

 ^V        quote non-printing character

Insert and replace

 a       append after cursor

 i       insert before

 A       append at end of line

 I       insert before first non-blank

 o       open line below

 O       open above

 rx      replace single char with x

 R       replace characters

Operators (double to affect lines)

 d       delete

 c       change

        left shift

 >       right shift

 !       filter through command

 =       indent for LISP

 y       yank lines to buffer

Miscellaneous operations

 C       change rest of line

 D       delete rest of line

 s       substitute chars

 S       substitute lines

 J       join lines

 x       delete characters

 X       ... before cursor

 Y       yank lines

Yank and put

 p       put back lines

 P       put before

 "xp     put from buffer x

 "xy     yank to buffer x

 "xd     delete into buffer x

Undo, redo, retrieve

 u       undo last change

 U       restore current line

 .       repeat last change

 "dp     retrieve d'th last delete

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